Source code for json

r"""JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) <http://json.org> is a subset of
JavaScript syntax (ECMA-262 3rd edition) used as a lightweight data
interchange format.

:mod:`json` exposes an API familiar to users of the standard library
:mod:`marshal` and :mod:`pickle` modules. It is the externally maintained
version of the :mod:`json` library contained in Python 2.6, but maintains
compatibility with Python 2.4 and Python 2.5 and (currently) has
significant performance advantages, even without using the optional C
extension for speedups.

Encoding basic Python object hierarchies::

    >>> import json
    >>> json.dumps(['foo', {'bar': ('baz', None, 1.0, 2)}])
    '["foo", {"bar": ["baz", null, 1.0, 2]}]'
    >>> print json.dumps("\"foo\bar")
    "\"foo\bar"
    >>> print json.dumps(u'\u1234')
    "\u1234"
    >>> print json.dumps('\\')
    "\\"
    >>> print json.dumps({"c": 0, "b": 0, "a": 0}, sort_keys=True)
    {"a": 0, "b": 0, "c": 0}
    >>> from StringIO import StringIO
    >>> io = StringIO()
    >>> json.dump(['streaming API'], io)
    >>> io.getvalue()
    '["streaming API"]'

Compact encoding::

    >>> import json
    >>> json.dumps([1,2,3,{'4': 5, '6': 7}], sort_keys=True, separators=(',',':'))
    '[1,2,3,{"4":5,"6":7}]'

Pretty printing::

    >>> import json
    >>> print json.dumps({'4': 5, '6': 7}, sort_keys=True,
    ...                  indent=4, separators=(',', ': '))
    {
        "4": 5,
        "6": 7
    }

Decoding JSON::

    >>> import json
    >>> obj = [u'foo', {u'bar': [u'baz', None, 1.0, 2]}]
    >>> json.loads('["foo", {"bar":["baz", null, 1.0, 2]}]') == obj
    True
    >>> json.loads('"\\"foo\\bar"') == u'"foo\x08ar'
    True
    >>> from StringIO import StringIO
    >>> io = StringIO('["streaming API"]')
    >>> json.load(io)[0] == 'streaming API'
    True

Specializing JSON object decoding::

    >>> import json
    >>> def as_complex(dct):
    ...     if '__complex__' in dct:
    ...         return complex(dct['real'], dct['imag'])
    ...     return dct
    ...
    >>> json.loads('{"__complex__": true, "real": 1, "imag": 2}',
    ...     object_hook=as_complex)
    (1+2j)
    >>> from decimal import Decimal
    >>> json.loads('1.1', parse_float=Decimal) == Decimal('1.1')
    True

Specializing JSON object encoding::

    >>> import json
    >>> def encode_complex(obj):
    ...     if isinstance(obj, complex):
    ...         return [obj.real, obj.imag]
    ...     raise TypeError(repr(o) + " is not JSON serializable")
    ...
    >>> json.dumps(2 + 1j, default=encode_complex)
    '[2.0, 1.0]'
    >>> json.JSONEncoder(default=encode_complex).encode(2 + 1j)
    '[2.0, 1.0]'
    >>> ''.join(json.JSONEncoder(default=encode_complex).iterencode(2 + 1j))
    '[2.0, 1.0]'


Using json.tool from the shell to validate and pretty-print::

    $ echo '{"json":"obj"}' | python -m json.tool
    {
        "json": "obj"
    }
    $ echo '{ 1.2:3.4}' | python -m json.tool
    Expecting property name enclosed in double quotes: line 1 column 3 (char 2)
"""
__version__ = '2.0.9'
__all__ = [
    'dump', 'dumps', 'load', 'loads',
    'JSONDecoder', 'JSONEncoder',
]

__author__ = 'Bob Ippolito <bob@redivi.com>'

from .decoder import JSONDecoder
from .encoder import JSONEncoder

_default_encoder = JSONEncoder(
    skipkeys=False,
    ensure_ascii=True,
    check_circular=True,
    allow_nan=True,
    indent=None,
    separators=None,
    encoding='utf-8',
    default=None,
)

def dump(obj, fp, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True,
        allow_nan=True, cls=None, indent=None, separators=None,
        encoding='utf-8', default=None, sort_keys=False, **kw):
    """Serialize ``obj`` as a JSON formatted stream to ``fp`` (a
    ``.write()``-supporting file-like object).

    If ``skipkeys`` is true then ``dict`` keys that are not basic types
    (``str``, ``unicode``, ``int``, ``long``, ``float``, ``bool``, ``None``)
    will be skipped instead of raising a ``TypeError``.

    If ``ensure_ascii`` is true (the default), all non-ASCII characters in the
    output are escaped with ``\uXXXX`` sequences, and the result is a ``str``
    instance consisting of ASCII characters only.  If ``ensure_ascii`` is
    ``False``, some chunks written to ``fp`` may be ``unicode`` instances.
    This usually happens because the input contains unicode strings or the
    ``encoding`` parameter is used. Unless ``fp.write()`` explicitly
    understands ``unicode`` (as in ``codecs.getwriter``) this is likely to
    cause an error.

    If ``check_circular`` is false, then the circular reference check
    for container types will be skipped and a circular reference will
    result in an ``OverflowError`` (or worse).

    If ``allow_nan`` is false, then it will be a ``ValueError`` to
    serialize out of range ``float`` values (``nan``, ``inf``, ``-inf``)
    in strict compliance of the JSON specification, instead of using the
    JavaScript equivalents (``NaN``, ``Infinity``, ``-Infinity``).

    If ``indent`` is a non-negative integer, then JSON array elements and
    object members will be pretty-printed with that indent level. An indent
    level of 0 will only insert newlines. ``None`` is the most compact
    representation.  Since the default item separator is ``', '``,  the
    output might include trailing whitespace when ``indent`` is specified.
    You can use ``separators=(',', ': ')`` to avoid this.

    If ``separators`` is an ``(item_separator, dict_separator)`` tuple
    then it will be used instead of the default ``(', ', ': ')`` separators.
    ``(',', ':')`` is the most compact JSON representation.

    ``encoding`` is the character encoding for str instances, default is UTF-8.

    ``default(obj)`` is a function that should return a serializable version
    of obj or raise TypeError. The default simply raises TypeError.

    If *sort_keys* is ``True`` (default: ``False``), then the output of
    dictionaries will be sorted by key.

    To use a custom ``JSONEncoder`` subclass (e.g. one that overrides the
    ``.default()`` method to serialize additional types), specify it with
    the ``cls`` kwarg; otherwise ``JSONEncoder`` is used.

    """
    # cached encoder
    if (not skipkeys and ensure_ascii and
        check_circular and allow_nan and
        cls is None and indent is None and separators is None and
        encoding == 'utf-8' and default is None and not sort_keys and not kw):
        iterable = _default_encoder.iterencode(obj)
    else:
        if cls is None:
            cls = JSONEncoder
        iterable = cls(skipkeys=skipkeys, ensure_ascii=ensure_ascii,
            check_circular=check_circular, allow_nan=allow_nan, indent=indent,
            separators=separators, encoding=encoding,
            default=default, sort_keys=sort_keys, **kw).iterencode(obj)
    # could accelerate with writelines in some versions of Python, at
    # a debuggability cost
    for chunk in iterable:
        fp.write(chunk)


def dumps(obj, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True,
        allow_nan=True, cls=None, indent=None, separators=None,
        encoding='utf-8', default=None, sort_keys=False, **kw):
    """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted ``str``.

    If ``skipkeys`` is false then ``dict`` keys that are not basic types
    (``str``, ``unicode``, ``int``, ``long``, ``float``, ``bool``, ``None``)
    will be skipped instead of raising a ``TypeError``.

    If ``ensure_ascii`` is false, all non-ASCII characters are not escaped, and
    the return value may be a ``unicode`` instance. See ``dump`` for details.

    If ``check_circular`` is false, then the circular reference check
    for container types will be skipped and a circular reference will
    result in an ``OverflowError`` (or worse).

    If ``allow_nan`` is false, then it will be a ``ValueError`` to
    serialize out of range ``float`` values (``nan``, ``inf``, ``-inf``) in
    strict compliance of the JSON specification, instead of using the
    JavaScript equivalents (``NaN``, ``Infinity``, ``-Infinity``).

    If ``indent`` is a non-negative integer, then JSON array elements and
    object members will be pretty-printed with that indent level. An indent
    level of 0 will only insert newlines. ``None`` is the most compact
    representation.  Since the default item separator is ``', '``,  the
    output might include trailing whitespace when ``indent`` is specified.
    You can use ``separators=(',', ': ')`` to avoid this.

    If ``separators`` is an ``(item_separator, dict_separator)`` tuple
    then it will be used instead of the default ``(', ', ': ')`` separators.
    ``(',', ':')`` is the most compact JSON representation.

    ``encoding`` is the character encoding for str instances, default is UTF-8.

    ``default(obj)`` is a function that should return a serializable version
    of obj or raise TypeError. The default simply raises TypeError.

    If *sort_keys* is ``True`` (default: ``False``), then the output of
    dictionaries will be sorted by key.

    To use a custom ``JSONEncoder`` subclass (e.g. one that overrides the
    ``.default()`` method to serialize additional types), specify it with
    the ``cls`` kwarg; otherwise ``JSONEncoder`` is used.

    """
    # cached encoder
    if (not skipkeys and ensure_ascii and
        check_circular and allow_nan and
        cls is None and indent is None and separators is None and
        encoding == 'utf-8' and default is None and not sort_keys and not kw):
        return _default_encoder.encode(obj)
    if cls is None:
        cls = JSONEncoder
    return cls(
        skipkeys=skipkeys, ensure_ascii=ensure_ascii,
        check_circular=check_circular, allow_nan=allow_nan, indent=indent,
        separators=separators, encoding=encoding, default=default,
        sort_keys=sort_keys, **kw).encode(obj)


_default_decoder = JSONDecoder(encoding=None, object_hook=None,
                               object_pairs_hook=None)


[docs]def load(fp, encoding=None, cls=None, object_hook=None, parse_float=None, parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, object_pairs_hook=None, **kw): """Deserialize ``fp`` (a ``.read()``-supporting file-like object containing a JSON document) to a Python object. If the contents of ``fp`` is encoded with an ASCII based encoding other than utf-8 (e.g. latin-1), then an appropriate ``encoding`` name must be specified. Encodings that are not ASCII based (such as UCS-2) are not allowed, and should be wrapped with ``codecs.getreader(fp)(encoding)``, or simply decoded to a ``unicode`` object and passed to ``loads()`` ``object_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the result of any object literal decode (a ``dict``). The return value of ``object_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``. This feature can be used to implement custom decoders (e.g. JSON-RPC class hinting). ``object_pairs_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the result of any object literal decoded with an ordered list of pairs. The return value of ``object_pairs_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``. This feature can be used to implement custom decoders that rely on the order that the key and value pairs are decoded (for example, collections.OrderedDict will remember the order of insertion). If ``object_hook`` is also defined, the ``object_pairs_hook`` takes priority. To use a custom ``JSONDecoder`` subclass, specify it with the ``cls`` kwarg; otherwise ``JSONDecoder`` is used. """ return loads(fp.read(), encoding=encoding, cls=cls, object_hook=object_hook, parse_float=parse_float, parse_int=parse_int, parse_constant=parse_constant, object_pairs_hook=object_pairs_hook, **kw)
[docs]def loads(s, encoding=None, cls=None, object_hook=None, parse_float=None, parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, object_pairs_hook=None, **kw): """Deserialize ``s`` (a ``str`` or ``unicode`` instance containing a JSON document) to a Python object. If ``s`` is a ``str`` instance and is encoded with an ASCII based encoding other than utf-8 (e.g. latin-1) then an appropriate ``encoding`` name must be specified. Encodings that are not ASCII based (such as UCS-2) are not allowed and should be decoded to ``unicode`` first. ``object_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the result of any object literal decode (a ``dict``). The return value of ``object_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``. This feature can be used to implement custom decoders (e.g. JSON-RPC class hinting). ``object_pairs_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the result of any object literal decoded with an ordered list of pairs. The return value of ``object_pairs_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``. This feature can be used to implement custom decoders that rely on the order that the key and value pairs are decoded (for example, collections.OrderedDict will remember the order of insertion). If ``object_hook`` is also defined, the ``object_pairs_hook`` takes priority. ``parse_float``, if specified, will be called with the string of every JSON float to be decoded. By default this is equivalent to float(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser for JSON floats (e.g. decimal.Decimal). ``parse_int``, if specified, will be called with the string of every JSON int to be decoded. By default this is equivalent to int(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser for JSON integers (e.g. float). ``parse_constant``, if specified, will be called with one of the following strings: -Infinity, Infinity, NaN, null, true, false. This can be used to raise an exception if invalid JSON numbers are encountered. To use a custom ``JSONDecoder`` subclass, specify it with the ``cls`` kwarg; otherwise ``JSONDecoder`` is used. """ if (cls is None and encoding is None and object_hook is None and parse_int is None and parse_float is None and parse_constant is None and object_pairs_hook is None and not kw): return _default_decoder.decode(s) if cls is None: cls = JSONDecoder if object_hook is not None: kw['object_hook'] = object_hook if object_pairs_hook is not None: kw['object_pairs_hook'] = object_pairs_hook if parse_float is not None: kw['parse_float'] = parse_float if parse_int is not None: kw['parse_int'] = parse_int if parse_constant is not None: kw['parse_constant'] = parse_constant return cls(encoding=encoding, **kw).decode(s)